Anyone who has read even the most basic literature on paramilitary, right-wing groups has inevitably stumbled upon references to the mysterious Elohim City. Elohim City first gained national notoriety in the wake of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, the largest domestic act of terrorism prior to September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, but it has long been the center of an underground movement involved in acts of terrorism, bank robberies, gun trafficking, drug trafficking, and other such endeavors. Despite its long-standing ties to crime and terrorism Elohim has long avoided any type of serious scrutiny, even after its links to Timothy McVeigh became public knowledge.
In the wake of the Oklahoma City bombing federal authorities would seemingly go to any lengths necessary to avoid bringing Elohim into the spotlight. This in turn has fueled any number of conspiracy theories concerning the true objective of Elohim, with some dismissing it as a ploy to discredit the grassroots right while others believing that it is at the heart of an ongoing campaign being waged by America's cryptocracy. Whatever the case, Elohim and its legacy are still having an effect on the American landscape, as the recent case of serial killer Israel Keyes illustrates. What's more, with right wing extremism and terrorism once again gripping the public consciousness Elohim is especially relevant as it was at the heart of the modern incarnation of such movements.
|Keyes, a recently captured serial killers (and shortly thereafter deceased) with links to Elohim|
This series will be an examination of both Elohim and the birth of the modern right-wing paramilitary movement. Indeed, it is impossible to truly appreciate Elohim's legacy without putting it in the context of the broader wave that it was a part of. We will first briefly consider Elohim itself and then move on to the various paramilitary groups and movements that flocked to it over the years. In the process we shall also consider the history of these groups and movements before arriving at the flowering of Elohim in the mid-90s, climaxing with Oklahoma City. So, now that the introductions and objectives are out of the way, let us begin.
Elohim City, like much of the modern paramilitary right, began in the early 1970s. This time frame is unsurprising. The early 1970s witnessed a lot of mainstream disillusionment with the current order on both sides of the political spectrum. The Left was horrified by the Vietnam conflict, the Kent State school shooting, assassinations of prominent leftist leaders (i.e.the Kennedy brothers and MLK), the emerging police state, and the unfolding Watergate scandal (among other things). The Right, by contrast, believed that the traditional American social order was being completely eroded. The more extreme elements viewed the Civil Rights movement, the Great Society, the sexual revolution, the emerging drug culture, and the peace movement as evidence of the final triumph of communism in the United States.
|an image from the riots surrounding the 1968 Democratic Convention, an incident that both the Left and Right saw as a glimpse of a dark and unstable future ahead for America|
The more fringe and extremist elements of both political spectrums began looking for ways to remove themselves from society. Thus cults and especially communes became fashionable among certain elements of the counterculture by the late 1960s. Shortly thereafter a similar phenomenon began to develop within the fringe Right, especially amongst followers of the Christian Identity ideology, which was a firmly racialist ideology.
"Christian Identity believers define nonwhites as evil incarnate and promote racial violence as acts ordained by God. They see blacks, Latinos, Asians, and other nonwhites is lower-order sub species of ' pre-Adamic mudpeople' and, therefore, not fully human. These beliefs are rooted in British Israelism, a nineteenth century English theology that posits the true Israelites were Anglo-Saxons. Christian Identity adds to this interpretation the notion that Jews are descended from Satan and resulted from Eve's copulation with the serpent. Identity believers imagine they are warriors in a righteous battle against the Jewish conspiracy to eradicate the white race."
(American Swastika, Pete Simi & Robert Futrell, pgs. 12)
Rogue historian Peter Levenda believes that the rise of the Christian Identity movement is also partly due to the lack of a true grassroots pagan movement in America.
"... the Christian Identity movement, which claims that the US Government is being run by Jews, and that Jews are the sons of Satan and must be exterminated; in this torturous theory (eerily familiar to students of Nazi ideology), the 'real' Lost Tribes of Israel are the Aryans and the Jews are merely descendants of Cain. Like such SS theorists before them... they have reinterpreted Christianity to the extent that up is down, white is black, and good is evil. The Lord of the Jews thus becomes Satan, even though they may secretly believe that their own God is a white warrior-demon, a light-bearing spirit known as Lucifer. Cynically, these 'ministers' of the anti-Semitic 'churches' preached and unrecognizable Christianity with one voice and instigate pogroms and assassinations with one another. In the absence of a real grass-roots pagan movement in America, they have adopted the trappings of fundamentalist Christianity as their mythic vehicle. But it is a secret, occult Christianity that they represent, for they are only the modern manifestation of the original Ku Klux Klan which met at night in the woods, dressed in hooded white robes, burning crosses, and swearing oaths in Masonic-style initiation ceremonies. One cannot imagine the same rituals taking place between Fidel Castro and Che Guevra; it is a typically right-wing phenomenon, and its political overtones are almost universally races, supremacist, and tolitarian. The Christian Identity movement is itself probably an attempt to create a 'white' fundamentalist Christianity as distinct from the 'black' Southern Baptists and Pentecostal denominations. By putting a different spin on the Old Testament and the Chosen People, the Christian Identity 'ministers' hope to exclude not only Jews from the New World Order, but also other races, with the unevolved, 'polluted' form of Christianity."
(Unholy Alliance, Peter Levenda, pgs. 349-350)
Christian Identity emerged as an ideology in the early 1920s but it was not until the 1970s that it gained real traction as a movement. There were a combination of factors for this. For one, the Ku Klux Klan was in decline by this point thanks to the long-past-due efforts of the FBI, thus leaving a vacuum in the white supremacist underground. For another, the Charismatic Movement that began in the late 1960s was beginning to turn the Christian fundamentalist and evangelical movements into major political forces. The Christian Identity movement would have a natural appeal to the more extreme factions of the above-mentioned groups. It would also find common grounds with the John Birch Society and other libertarian-leaning conspiracists in regards to income taxes, the Federal Reserve, and gun laws, among other things.
All of these factors contributed to the rise of various private communities such as the Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord community near the Missouri-Arkansas border, the former Aryan Nations compound in Hayden Lake, Idaho, and Elohim City, in the early 1970s. First, let us briefly consider Elohim.
"Founded in 1973, Elohim City is the oldest major racialist community still operating in the United States. Robert Millar moved to the United States from Canada in the 1950s and organized 18 Christian Identity members to build a settlement on 400 acres near Muldrow, Oklahoma, an isolated and mountainous area along the Oklahoma-Arkansas border. Millar and his followers planned an insular Christian Identity community. They named it Elohim City, or 'City of God' while waiting for the Rapture."
(American Swastika, Pete Simi & Robert Futrell, pgs. 102-103)
|Millar, Elohim City's founder|
Unsurprisingly, the word Elohim also has significance in Nazi mysticism. In the ideology of the Vril society (the existence of which is highly debatable) the Aryan race was referred to as the Elohim. Vril members allegedly settled upon this name after a medium working for the group was telepathically informed of this designation by an extraterrestrial intelligence.
"In 1921 Maria Orsic (or Orsitsch), a medium in the Vril society, began claiming spirit messages originating from Aryan aliens whose home star was Aldebara. Orsic and another medium, Sigrun, learned that the aliens spoke of two classes of people on their world -- the Aryan master race and a subservient planetary race that had evolved through mutation and climate changes. A half billion years ago the Aryans, also known as the Elohim or Elder Race, began to colonize our solar system. On earth, the Aryans were identified as the Sumerians until they elected to carve out an empire for themselves in the hollow of the planet. The Vril force was derived from the Black Sun, a large ball of 'Prima Materia' that provided light and radiation to the inhabitants of the inner earth."
(Conspiracies and Secret Societies, Brad Steiger & Sherry Steiger, pg. 489)
Strangely the Raeliam Movement, a UFO cult founded by Claude Vorilhon, also refers to our extraterrestrial creators as the Elohim. But I digress; Back to Elohim City.
"Elohim City residents are notoriously secretive about their beliefs and activities and shield their racialism from outsiders. The city hosts a population that reportedly fluctuates between seventy and ninety residents. Members focus on 'pure' living, shunning the outside world and its decadence, which they claim will bring the apocalypse to cleanse the world of all impurities.
"Elohim City believes devoutly in racial separatism. Prior to his death in 2001, Millar preached separatism as a strategy to avoid conflict and strengthen bloodlines and kinship ties among 'true, pure Aryans.' Millar's son John now leads the community and continues his father's emphasis on racial separatism.
"The community includes a sawmill, trucking company, K-12 school, church, community medical service, armed patrol unit, and construction firm, which financially supports the community. Elohim City members begin each day with a Pentecostal-type church service that may last several hours. Recreational activities are exclusively community events. The entire community, including children, participates in parties, picnics, canoe trips, and even socializing."
(American Swastika, Pete Simi & Robert Futrell, pg. 103)
Over the years Elohim would attract virtually every major figure and group in the white supremacist underground.
"... extremist groups to which Elohim City members have ties include Aryan Nations, the Aryan People's Republic, and White Aryan Resistance. Mark Thomas, former Pennsylvania minister for the Aryan Nations, who hosted meanings of neo-Nazis, skinheads, and other white racist groups on his Pennsylvania farm, helped organize the Aryan Republican Army and arrange for several of its members to live at Elohim City. Cheyne and Chevie Kehoe, who found that the small but violent Aryan People's Republic, reportedly sought refuge at Elohim City. Dennis Mahone, a former imperial dragon in the Oklahoma Ku Klux Klan and an organizer for White Aryan Resistance, kept a trailer at Elohim City."Beyond these groups Elohim also maintained ties with three of the most notorious movements/groups within the Christian Identity and white supremacist underground: the Posse Comitatus; the Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord (CSA); and the Order also known as die Bruder Schwigen (German for "the Silent Brotherhood").We shall now consider these three outfits and their ties to Elohim City, beginning with the Posse Comitatus.
(ibid, pg. 103)
The Posse Comitatus, unlike the CSA and the Order, does not have a formal structure. It is a nationwide movement with various loosely connected chapters. While it is not implicitly a racialist movement it is has had close ties to the Christian Identity throughout its history.
"In the 1970s retired army colonel William Potter Gale formed a group of armed anti-tax and anti-federal government survivalists who agreed with his political philosophy that all government power should be rooted at the county, rather than the federal, level. Posse Comitatus members resist paying taxes because the federal government is controlled by Jews. Some members won't even apply for driver's licenses because to do so would be to submit to an illegal, subversive authority. The Posse soon attracted Klan members and other anti-Semites, including David Duke.
"This intermittently active, loosely organized group of antigovernment agitators and avowed followers of Christian Identity received nationwide attention in 1983 when Posse member Gordon Kahl murdered two federal marshals who had come to arrest him for a parole violation in connection with a conviction for nonpayment of taxes. Kahl became a fugitive and was later killed in a shootout with Arkansas law enforcement officers.
"In October 1987 Posse founder William Potter Gale and four associates from the California-based Committee of the States were convicted of threatening the lives of Internal Revenue Service agents and a Nevada state judge. Sentenced to federal prison in January 1988, Gale died in April that year, at age seventy-one.
"In 1991 an Identity minister and Posse leader based in Michigan, James Wickstorm, was convicted of scheming to distribute $100,000 in counterfeit bills to white supremacist at the 1988 Aryan World Congress. While he was doing time in prison, Wickstorm transferred his leadership position to Mark Thomas, an Identity preacher from Pennsylvania."
(Conspircies and Secret Societies, Brad Steiger & Sherry Steiger, pgs. 377-378)
|Gordon Kahl, a Christian identity believer and early Posse Comitatus member who has seen become a martyr for the movement|
Keep Thomas in mind as we shall be coming back to him in just a moment. Before moving along let us briefly consider the influence the Posse Comitatus had on various right-wing grassroots groups such as the militia and sovereign citizens movements.
"Some writers have also argued that the militia movement was significantly influenced by several 1980s extremist groups, including the Posse Comitatus, the Order, and the Committee of the States. The Posse was started in California by William Potter Gale and in Oregon by Henry Beach in the early 1970s, and by the early 1980s its activities had been document in nearly twenty states. Much for its growth was tied to its leaders' exploitation of the farm crisis. One of my interviewees discuss the influence of the Posse on the militia movement:
Well, the militia movement is different from the Posse, but it comes from the Posse. The Posse as an organization died out in the mid-1980s, but the ideology stuck around. In the mid-1990s you have seen a resurgence of that ideology in two different ways. The posse had this paper terrorism and paramilitary activity. In the 1990s, you see the paper terrorism in the common-law courts and sovereign citizens, and the paramilitary activity is seen in the militia movement. It is kind of a strange thing. The common law courts and sovereign citizens are more of a direct descendent of the Posse, and the militia movement is an offshoot of the Posse, but there are some connections there.
"There are several direct connections to Posse Comitatus that clearly influenced the militia movement of the 1990s. Posse adherents believe that the only 'true form of government was a near anarchic, highly localized form of government centered on the county sheriff.' The sheriff, they argue, was the law of the land, because the Constitution provided law enforcement powers only to him. The Posse believed that the federal government was part of a great conspiracy to deprive individuals of their rights and that the country needed to return to the basic text of the Constitution. The Posse movement also was influenced by survivalist practices. Survivalist prepared for society's collapse by storing weapons, food, water, and other supplies, and practicing field maneuvers in order to defend their lives and property."
(Searching For a Demon, Steven M. Chermak, pg. 29)
Keep all of this in mind as we shall return to it a bit later on. Anyway, returning to Mark Thomas, a Pennsylvania member of the Posse. Thomas would be instrumental in the formation of the Aryan Republican Army, also known as the Midwest Bank Robbers/Bandits, a group with ties to Elohim City. Two reputed members, Michael Brescia and Richard Lee Guthrie, were residents of Elohim for a time.
"Richard Lee Guthrie, Jr., the son of the CIA employee, discharge from the Navy for painting a swastika on the side of a ship and threatening superiors, his childhood friend Peter K. Langan, and Shawn Kenny, went on to form the nucleus of a group known as the Midwest Bank Bandits. The group stole more than $250,000 from 22 banks between January, '94 and December, '95 in a spree that led them across Ohio, Wisconsin, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri. The four member group would often wear FBI jackets to taunt the Bureau, and create diversions to foil police, including leaving behind inert pipe-bombs to slow pursuit. The bandits even had a macabre sense of humor, wearing a Santa Claus suit during a hold up around Christmas, and an Easter basket with a gold painted pipe bomb left inside a bank in Des Moines.
"'Wid Bill' Guthrie also admitted to a West Virginia sheriff that he had helped Butler's Aryan Nations raise another quarter million dollars through fraud. Both Guthrie and Langan were regular visitors to the Hayden Lake compound...
"In November, '94, Mark Thomas, the local Aryan Nations representative, united the two with others of their kind. Thomas' farm, located rather appropriately next to a toxic waste dump, has been the site of skinhead and neo-Nazi rallies such as White Pride Day and the annual Hitler Youth Festival, where participants enjoyed such wholesome activities as pagan rituals and cross burnings.
"Thomas introduced the pair to Pennsylvania native Scott Stedeford, a rock musician and artist, and Kevin McCarthy, bassist in a white power band named 'Day of the Sword.' Thomas was instrumental in helping the men form an alliance which they would call the Aryan Republican Army (ARA)...
"The Pennsylvania Posse Comitatus leader would also introduce Stedeford and McCarthy to Michael Brescia, a Philadelphia native and rock musician who would go on to form a speed metal band with McCarthy and Stedeford called 'Cyanide.' The rock 'n roll bank robbers decided to recruit the 24-year-old La Salle University student after planning the heist of a large bank in Madison, Wisconsin, which the trio robbed on August 30, 1995.
"The three men came to know 'Grandpa Millar' at Elohim City courtesy of Thomas, and Brescia was soon engaged to Millar's granddaughter, Ester. Brescia wound up living at the reclusive compound for two years."
(The Oklahoma City Bombing and the Politics of Terror, David Hoffman, pgs. 119-121)
While there were never extensive ties between the Posse Comitatus and Elohim City there was at least a connection to one prominent member of the Posse, as the above indicates. In the wake of the Oklahoma City bombing it was alleged that Timothy McVeigh may also have been a member of this organization. Inevitably his connection would have been due to his ties to Elohim Cty, but more on that later. For now let us move along to the Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord (CSA).
The CSA has the most direct ties to Elohim City of the three subjects currently being considered, as we shall soon see. For now, let us consider the organization's history.
"From its formation in 1971 until its destruction in 1985, The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord was one of the most active and notorious Aryan settlements. CSA became a model for later private Aryan communities. Texas minister James Ellison founded CSA on more than 200 acres near the Missouri-Arkansas border. Their geographical isolation separated CSA families from the taint of mainstream society, and the area's isolated and rugged terrain made monitoring by authorities especially difficult. The property's location on state borders also complicated jurisdictional responsibilities...
"During the late 1970s, after Ellison claimed to have a vision of the coming race war that would engulf America, he and his followers turned to the Christian Identity principles and transformed the property into a white supremacist, paramilitary training camp. The group adopted the name The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord to reflect their increasing radicalization. Ellison began characterizing 'the CSA mission as establishing an "Ark for God's people" for the coming race war. God's people were white Christians [while] Jews, he told his followers, were not really God's chosen people, but rather a demonic an inferior race...'
"The CSA settlement build a church, a communications center, workshop, munition storage bunker, and member houses. Each family lived in their own 24 square-foot residence without electricity and running water. Reflecting their apocalyptic worldview, member strategically position their homes in three separate directions from the main settlement as defensive vantage points in case of attack. Families also prepared for attacks with underground storage and safety bunkers...
"To supplement their income, CSA members traded semiautomatic rifles, silencers, and other weapons on the gun-show circuit. Ellison prodded his followers into thievery and pawning personal goods that were not crucial to warfare and survival. Followers even pawned their own wedding rings. Such income increased the CSA stockpiles of weaponry, chemicals, explosives, food, and first aid supplies.
"Ellison and his CSA followers originally stockpiled weapons and did survivalist training as a defensive preparation for racial conflict. But in the early 1980s, CSA planned several terrorist plots. In 1983, federal marshals killed Christian Identity adherent Gordon Kahl in a shootout. after that event, CSA declared the compound 'an arms depot and paramilitary training ground for Aryan warriors.' CSA plan the assassinations of a local FBI agent and a U.S. district Judge, and plotted the poisoning of municipal water supplies, arsons, and bombings.
"The original plan to destroy the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was hatched by CSA members nearly 12 years before Timothy McVeigh and his accomplices bomded it to complete the mission. Although CSA failed to execute most of its terrorist plans, CSA members and their associates bombed a Missouri community church known to support homosexuality and a Indiana Jewish community center. CSA radicals also detonated explosives near a natural gas pipeline in Arkansas, robbed and murdered a pawnshop owner they thought was Jewish, murdered in African-American Arkansas State Trooper.
"CSA's spree of violence ended in April 1985. Ellison and other CSA followers surrendered at CSA's compound following a four-day standoff federal agents. The FBI's search of the CSA compound uncovered nearly 200 firearms, including landmines, machine guns, assault rifles, thousands of rounds of ammunition, antitank rockets, and the large supply of cyanide.
"In September 1985, CSA leaders James Ellison and Krry Noble and four other CSA activists were sentenced to federal prison on racketeering and weapons charges, which effectively destroyed the group and the settlement."
(American Swastika, Pete Simi & Robert Futrell, pgs. 100-102)
|the CSA compound|
Upon being released from prison Ellison took up residence at Elohim City, along with several other followers.
"CSA founder James Ellison and his close associate Richard Wayne Snell repeatedly visited Elohim City in the early 1980s. in the FBI surrounded the CSA compound to arrest Ellison and his followers. In 1985 they requested Millar's cooperation to mediate a peaceful surrender to the armed standoff. Robert Millar was Snell's spiritual advisor, and John Millar testified as a character witness when Snell was sentenced to death for the 1984 murder of an Arkansas State Trooper. On April 19, 1995, the same day as the Oklahoma City bombing, Robert Millar visited Snell just before he was executed. Millar witnessed the execution and arranged for Snell's body to be buried at Elohim City."
(ibid, pg. 103)
Accounts of Millar and Snell's reaction to the Oklahoma City bombing have been mixed.
"...Snell was executed on the ever-prophetic date of April 19, 1995, the very day the Murrah Building was bombed. Snell was convicted of killing a black state trooper in 1984, and a pawnshop owner he thought was Jewish. While under arrest, Snell called himself a ' prisoner of war,' precisely what authorities claim McVeigh said.
"Before his death, Snell had time to watch scenes from the bombing on his jail room TV. Millar, who was with the 64-year-old Snell during his final hours, said he was appalled at the destruction. Yet according to Arkansas prison official Alan Ables, 'Snell chuckled and laughed as he watched television coverage of the Oklahoma City disaster.'
"Both Millar and Snell's wife contended the convicted murderer was saddened by the bombing..."
(The Oklahoma City Bombing and the Politics of Terror, David Hoffman, pg.117)
The guard Ables also alleged that Snell predicted that some type of tragedy would happen on the day of his execution. He reportedly told the Denver Post "... Snell was talking strangely, he was, you know, making statements that were little scary...catastrophic events, things were going to happen. This date, April 19th, was going to be something that the governor would regret perhaps" (ibid, pg. 117). We shall consider the implications of this a bit further in a later installment.
Moving along, we now come to the Order. The Order, also known as the Silent Brotherhood, was easily the most effective and notorious of the Christian Identity-oriented paramilitary groups that sprung up during the 1980s.
"The Silent Brotherhood, for example, is run by neo-Nazi who gives the official name of the organization in German as Bruder Scheigen... The murder of Denver radio talk show host Alan Berg on June 18, 1984, by The Orders is one example of the lengths to which these groups will go.
"The Order is perhaps one of the most secretive, and yet most violent, of these groups. Patterning itself on an identically named organization in the famous racist novel, The Turner Diaries, The Order was also responsible for the largest armored car robbery in US history. Taking place in Ukiah, California on July 18, 1984 (exactly a month after the murder of Berg), the heist netted The Order a staggering $3.6 million. The Order's founder and leader, Bob Matthews, intended to use some of that money to purchase sophisticated laser weapons that would allow him to knock out the Los Angeles power grid (once again, this was a plot element in The Turner Diaries). Eventually The Order was routed and its members were either killed in firefights or serving time in federal prison; but not before some of the money they managed to steal wound up spread around in the coffers of various other right-wing hate groups.
"According to one informant who told the story to former Order member Thomas Martinez, The Order was receiving contributions from German 'families' living in South America. This German Nazi-South American Nazi-North American Nazi link is reinforced by stories that German neo-Nazi terrorist Manford Roeder, for instance, met with Dr. Mengele in Brazil as late as 1978 before coming to the States and meeting with American neo-Nazi groups. Roeder was eventually convicted of the 1980 firebombing of a Vietnamese shelter in Hamburg, Germany, which killed two of the boat people."
(Unholy Alliance, Peter Levenda, pgs. 348-349)
Besides South America's notorious ex-pat Nazi community The Order was also suspected of accepting funds from Islamic terror networks. According to David Hoffman in The Oklahoma City Bombing and the Poliics of Terror Syria -- another nation with extensive ties to the postwar Nazi underground and a well-known sponsor of terrorism --offered funding to The Order. Keep this in mind dear reader as we shall address the Elohim City ties to both Nazism and Islamic terrorism in a later installment.
As for The Order's ties to Elohim City, they are tenuous at best. Of them, Hoffman vaguely states:
"Yet the group [Elohim City -Recluse] does maintain connections to white supremacist and neo-Nazi organizations, including WAR, the somewhat defunct CSA, and the violent but largely disbanded Order. The Christian Identity adherents also formed alliances with Richard Butler, Christian Identity 'minister,' and head of the Aryan Nations in Hayden Lake, Idaho. the Hayden Lake compound served as a nexus for white supremacist groups from all over the country, including KKK, Posse Comitatus, William Pierce's National Alliance, and Robert Matthew's Order."
(The Oklahoma City Bombing and the Politics of Terror, pg. 119)
|Richard Butler and his Aryan Nations organization would maintain close ties with members of the Order, both during and after their crime wave|
The Order was closely associated with the Aryan Nations throughout its run (allegedly passing on the proceeds from its bank robberies to Butler's group) but I've yet to find a direct link to a member of the Order and Elohim City. That being said, there are clearly fellow travelers between the two organizations. Elohim City had direct and well documented ties to the Aryan Nations, for instance. What's more, the attorney for Andreas Strassmeir, Elohim City's head of security in the early 90s, was married to the sister of a member of the Order. In the next installment we shall examine the strange and terrible saga surrounding this attorney, Strassmeir, and Elohim City in the years leading up to the Oklahoma City Bombing. Stay tuned.